History of Lotus

Auto, Lotus, Leather Seats, Sports Seats

An overview of The Lotus Sports Car, to concentrate on the development, important features, and technical information of each model in the range, from the Mark 6 to the Elise S1.

In this report, I provide a nostalgic look at The Lotus Sports Car, among an elite group of classic cars, which was manufactured during the period 1952 to 1996+.

In 1952, Colin Chapman founded the Lotus Engineering Company whose goal was to generate racing and sports cars.

His first car was simply called the Mark 6 and was marketed in kit form.

The Lotus Seven

Based on the Mark 6, the Series 1 Lotus Seven was introduced in 1957.

Produced mainly in kit form, it allowed enthusiasts to get a combination sports and racing car inexpensively. It was a lightweight, quick and responsive two seater machine.

This was followed, in 1961, by the Series 2 Lotus Seven with a 1.3 litre engine.

In 1968, the San Antonio Wildlife Removal was introduced with a 1.6 litre engine.

Lastly, the Series 4 Lotus Seven appeared in 1970 with either a 1.6 or 1.7 litre engine.

The Lotus Elite

A greater performance SE version in 1960 produced 85 bhp.

There followed the Super 95, Super 100 and Super 105, with much more power. With its aerodynamic shape and Coventry Climax engine, it was a standard on the racing circuits.

The Lotus Elan

It was the first Lotus sports car to combine a steel chassis with a fibre glass frame.

This two seater was, technically, ahead of its time working with a Lotus-Ford twin cam engine and a Cosworth alloy head.

A 2+2 variant was introduced in 1967 with a top speed of 120 mph and 0-60 in 7.9 secs. Some 5,200 were constructed.

The Lotus Europa

The Lotus Europa, a two door, mid engined coupe, premiered in 1966.

Like the Elan, it had a fibre glass body on a steel chassis. The modified Renault engine was positioned behind the driver’s head.

Later models were fitted using the Lotus-Ford twin cam engine. The Europa wasn’t well received.

The Lotus Elite

In 1974, Lotus launched the front-engined, four seater Elite hatchback, designated the Type 75.

Once again, such as the Elan, it had a fibre glass body on a steel chassis. It used a 16-valve, twin overhead cam engine with a five speed gearbox.

There were four levels of specification, from the fundamental 501 to the peak of the range 504.

The Lotus Eclat

Also in 1974, the Lotus Eclat was introduced.

Based on the Lotus Elite Series 75, it had a fastback body style which provided greater boot storage.

Later models used a bigger, 2174 cc Lotus engine, although it retained the same 160 bhp due to emission regulations.

The Lotus Esprit

The Lotus Esprit Series 1 was launched in 1976. As before, it was a fiber glass body on a steel chassis, and has been the replacement for the Europa.

The engine was positioned behind the passengers, as was its predecessors. Regrettably, it was considered as being underpowered.

In 1981, the Lotus Esprit Turbo Type 82 was introduced, and was based on their expertise gained in racing.

Finally, in 1986, the Turbo Esprit HC appeared, and its high compression engine generated 215 bhp. This brought the Esprit into the supercar league.

The Lotus M100 Elan appeared in 1989.

It was a two seater convertible, and utilized a Japanese Isuzu, twin overhead cam, 1.6 litre, 16-valve engine extensively modified by Lotus. Once more, the fiber glass body has been fixed to a steel chassis.

This was the only front wheel drive sports car made by Lotus.

The Lotus Elise

Launched in 1996, the Lotus Elise Type 111 was a two seater, mid-engined convertible. Its fibre glass body has been bonded to an aluminum chassis.

Lotus also offered a set of limited edition variants. These were designed primarily for racing. The Lotus Elise outperformed all revenue anticipation, and returned Lotus into the premier league.

This marked the end of the classic Lotus sports car Beyond 2000, Lotus made a variety of exciting sports cars which, sadly, falls beyond the time frame of this review.

Perhaps this stroll down memory lane might have answered, or at least shed light on, a possible question:

Which Lotus Sports Car Is Your Favorite

However, should this query still remain unanswered, I will be reviewing, in some detail, in future articles in this website, the entire assortment of Lotus sports cars which were featured in the unforgettable era spanning 1952 to 1996.

I hope you join me in my nostalgic travels “down sports car memory lane”.

If you would care to view my Initial post, including Pictures, Videos, Technical Data, and Charts not shown in this Article, then please click on the following link:

History of the Skyline

Nissan Skyline Drift Car Race Tuned Show S

In April of 1957, the Prince Motor Company introduced the very first Skyline automobile. When it was released it was advertised as a luxury automobile. The first Skyline came equipped with a 1.5 Litre, 1482cc GA-30 engine and was capable of a top speed of 87mph.

In 1958 the Skyline model had an update with the addition of quad headlights and a slightly altered 1.5 Litre GA-4 overhead valve engine. This engine has been made up until 1961. The Prince Skyline models were available in both four door sedans and five door channel wagons/estates. From the early 1960’s the Skyline was also available in what was known as the Skyline Sport package, this model featured hand constructed bodies in both coupe and convertible versions and were powered with a 1.9 Litre 1862cc GB-30 engine.

Prince then launched the S50 series of Skylines. These vehicles were considered the second generation in Skyline history. The S50 series became one of the most desired vehicles in Japan. They came powered by a G-1 engine, which was a revised version of the older GA-4.

Nissan and Prince merged together in 1966 which enabled the S50 to appear with Nissan Prince Skyline badging. The creation of the S50 series lasted until 1967 when the S50E-3 was released. The same model could be found under four different badges, the Prince Skyline, the Prince A150, the PMC A150 or the Nissan A150.

1967 saw an update to the Skyline model once more, this version was dubbed the S57 and came armed with a 1.5 Litre overhead camera 1487cc G15 engine. For its time the G15 was known as the most powerful engine in its class.

In 1968 Nissan introduced the C10 series of Skylines, these were equipped with the G15 engine or a 1.8 Litre G18.

The very first of Nissans GT-R range of skylines was introduced in 1969. The original GT-R started as a sedan but in 1970 that a coupe version was added. The GT-r models came stripped of anything deemed unnecessary so they could make them as light as possible for racing.

1971 saw the coming of the KGC10 2000GT-X Skyline. This was originally released in a two door coupe version but in 1972 a four door sedan version labeled the GT-X joined the line up.

1972 saw the arrival of the Nissan Skyline GT-R hardtop. Nissan ceased its production once the oil crisis forced many people to look into buying market vehicles to shy away from performance vehicles. At this same time Nissan pulled out of the motor racing circuits thus eliminating the need for what was then considered the high performance standout of its time. This was to be the last Skyline GT-R for 16 years before the Brand was revived in 1989.

The next generation of Skylines was the C110 versions that began production in 1972. The C110 series was the first in its own production line up to feature the round rear lights which became typical in later skyline designs. This line up remained in production until 1977.

After 1977 Nissan continued to split the skyline range down into basic four and six cylinder models. These were known as the C210 Collection of Skylines. The GT-XE was introduced using a turbo charged L20ET engine. On the early variations one unique design component of the turbo charged engines was that they were not intercooled nor did they have any type of blow off valve. Also the T designation at the end of the engine code L20ET doesn’t mean it’s a turbo, the T really stands for twin carburettors.

There were a total of 26 versions of the R30 available at the time mixing body styles and engines so people could in effect get exactly the car they wanted.In 1983 that the R30 series got a facelift, common additions that were made standard included: four wheel disk brakes, upgraded interior trim, new exterior bumpers smoked tail lights and door mounted wing mirrors.

Also in 1981 that the 2000RS model was introduced, this variant was originally marketed as a stripped down lightweight racing version. These models came equipped with a dual overhead cam FJ20E engine.

Front brakes were upgraded to larger units to cope with the increased power available.

In 1984 more changes were made with the addition of an intercooler, newly revised compression ratios and a new turbo charger exhaust housing. These were available in both manual and automatic transmission variants.

In 1986 we saw the introduction of the R31 Skyline, this was thought of as the seventh generation in the Skyline line. The R31 had many new inventions with technologies and additional capabilities. The Engine fuel and ignition system became more advanced with the addition of the NICS (Nissan Induction Control System) injection system which increased low end performance.

One of the ultimate versions of the R31 was the RB20DET-R powered HR31 GTS-R. This variant only had 800 units constructed. This amount allowed Nissan to enter the vehicle into the touring car racing circuit. The automobile itself had a much bigger turbo charger than normal and it was located on a tubular exhaust manifold that was included in addition to a much larger front mounted intercooler boosting power across the board.

In 1989 we saw the introduction of this HCR32 Skyline, this was available in either a sedan or coupe body style and the rest of the body designs were dropped. The R32 because it would be come to be known was powered by different variations of Nissans RB engine lineup.

1989 also saw the return of this GT-R, these new models came equipped with twin ceramic turbo chargers, electronically controlled all wheel drive and all wheel steering. The GT-R also had larger wheels, a larger intercooler and flared front and rear wheel arches.

In 1993 the R33 skyline was introduced. This was slightly heavier than previous versions and all models now used a six cylinder engine. With the launch of the the Skyline could no longer be thought of as a compact car as exterior measurements grew from that bracket as compared to other manufacturers, but this didn’t prevent consumers from needing one.

In 1996 the R33 got the addition of regular driver and passenger side air bags. The turbo versions were also given a nylon compressor wheel. The R33 was created until 1998 with the model being retired with its 40th anniversary R33 series 2.

Also in 1996 the GT-R was improved. Changes such as turbo compressor aerodynamics, intercooler and turbo dump pipe were all revised. A limited number of special edition NISMO 400R GT-R’s was created. These featured a road tuned engine and a getrag gearbox which has turned out to be more powerful than previous offerings.

In 1998 the R34 model was introduced. This motor, the RB20DE-NEO became the most fuel efficient straight six engines till this day.

The most recent version saw changes to the chassis, the inclusion of ball bearings to the turbo core as compared to a good position, and a new six speed getrag gearbox.

In 2007 a new variant of the GT-R premiered. Nissan now chose to separate the GT-R aside from the normal Skyline line and make it a stand alone version. This version was released to the general public in 2008. The vehicle keeps its legacy by still using the chassis code CBA-R35 or just R35. For more please check out Critter Control Round Rock

How the Camaro Started

Car, Camaro, Auto, Automobile, Drive

While designers and engineers feverishly worked tirelessly to the development of a four-passenger sports car they code-named the F-car, the Chevy public relations, marketing and advertising team prepared the world for the introduction of a car they called the Panther.

All through the summer of 1965 virtually every component of the vehicle’s design and development, from preliminary design sketches to clay models, was photographed and carefully recorded. Chevy used the assets to make a 30 -minute movie The Camaro, which was later shown on TV and in movie theaters. They also introduced women’s clothes known as the Camaro Collection and even a Camaro road race game.

In November, Chevy sales executives and creative people previewed prototype models at the GM Tech Center. Campbell-Ewald, Chevy’s venerable ad agency, immediately began work on catalogs, direct mail and sales promotion materials, along with print, outdoor and TV/radio advertising. In April 1966, at the New York Auto Show Press Conference, Chevrolet sales executives announced that no name was chosen for the new vehicle, but did announce that pricing of 1967 model will be in the Corvair-Chevy II range.

Throughout ancient 1966 Chevy agonized over a title for its Mustang-killer. GM’s upper management was nervous about the competitive connotations of the Panther name. A similar bout of cold feet would later cause the Pontiac version, code called the Banshee, to be renamed Firebird. Over its brief lifetime, the F-car had been called by many names including Wildcat, Chaparral, Commander and Nova. It’s also rumored that Chevy considered using the letters”GM” in the title, and came up with G-Mini, which evolved to GeMini and finally Gemini. However, GM’s upper management vetoed the idea, fearing the car might be a failure.

Automotive legend has it that someone at Chevrolet finally suggested the name Camaro and upper direction quickly agreed. Even though the name has no actual significance, GM researchers reportedly found the word in a French dictionary as a slang term for”friend” or”companion.” It is rumored that Ford Motor Company researchers also discovered other definitions, including”a shrimp-like creature” and an arcane term for”loose bowels.”

Since a number or pre-launch materials had already been published utilizing the Panther name, Chevy’s most pressing challenge was to now rename their new Mustang killer, the Camaro.

On June 21, 1966, around 200 automotive journalists received a telegram from General Motors saying,”Please be available at noon of June 28 for significant press conference. Hope you can be available to help scratch a cat. The next day, journalists received another mysterious telegram stating,”Society for the Eradication of Panthers from the Automotive World will hold first and last meeting on June 28.” Once more, the telegram was signed, John L. Cutter – Chevrolet Public Relations – SEPAW Secretary.

It was the first time in history that 14 cities were hooked up in real time for a press conference via telephone lines. Elliot M.”Pete” Estes, who replaced”Bunkie” Knudsen as Chevrolet General Manager in July 1965, began the news conference by announcing all participants were now charter members of the Society for the Elimination of Panthers in the Automotive World (SEPAW.) Estes confidently announced that Camaro was chosen as the name for Chevy’s new four-passenger sports car to honor the tradition of starting Chevy model names with the letter C such as the Corvette, Corvair, Chevelle, and Chevy II. Most automotive insiders agreed it was a ridiculous statement, given the fact that the Chevy Impala was subsequently the best-selling car in the world. Estes then went on to explain that the Camaro name was,”derived from a French word meaning comrade or pal and indicates the comradeship of great friends as a private car should be to its owner.” Automotive legend also has it that, after the press conference, when a member of the automotive press asked,”what is a Camaro?” A Chevrolet product manager immediately answered by saying,”a small, vicious animal that eats Mustangs.”

Soon after the press conference, editors from major magazines were invited to the GM Proving Grounds for a hands-on driving experience, hot laps with professional drivers and briefing on all aspects of the Camaro. Dealers saw the Camaro for the first time in August, at the Chevrolet Sales Convention in Detroit. On September 25, the first Camaro advertisements appeared in national newspapers. On September 28, 1966, Chevrolet launched an unprecedented ad blitz consisting of newspapers, magazines, radio, television, outdoor and television advertising.

The very first Chevy Camaro television commercial can nevertheless be seen on YouTube. It features a white Camaro RS/SS using the distinctive bumble-bee nose band emerging from a volcano. The voice over proudly introduces”The fiery new Camaro from Chevrolet… something you’ve never seen before.”

Just prior to the official June 29th launch date, a press package with photographs, specifications, and line stories were published to newspapers and magazines across the country. Over 100 members of the press were invited to participate in a gymkhana driving contest at the GM Proving Grounds. The same type of event was held one week later in Los Angeles. A group of editors were also selected to induce top-optioned Camaro RS/SS versions from Detroit to their home cities so they could publish,”I drove it personally,” feature articles in their regional newspapers.

Mustang’s two and a half year head start in the market did little blunt America’s eagerness to see the new Camaro. Chevy dealerships throughout the country were filled to overflowing with curious and willing buyers. Dealerships were issued special window trimming, urged to black-out their windows and extend their showroom hours. Long lines formed to even glimpse the new automobile. Those waiting in line were also more than willing to debate the merits of Mustang and the still unseen Camaro. It is rumored that local police were frequently called help control the crowds.

Chevy made every attempt to supply their largest dealers with a base sport coupe, Camaro RS and a Camaro SS convertible. The tactic was an extension of the creative approach used in Chevy’s national advertisements which showed all three Camaro models under a tag line,”How much Camaro you want depends on how much driver that you want to be.”

The sticker price of $2,466 to get a Camaro base coupe and $2,704 to get a base convertible was fully competitive with Ford’s pricing of the 1967 Mustang models which was $2,461 for the standard coupe, $2,692 for a standard fastback and $2,898 for a typical convertible.

Taking a page from Mustang’s success in earning additional profit from accessories and options, the Camaro could be arranged with almost 80 mill options and 40 seller accessories. Buyers could also option up to a greater 250-inch variant of the conventional straight six engine, a choice of 327-cubic-inch small-block V8s fed by a two-barrel or a four-barrel carburetor and two versions of this 396-cubic-inch big-block V8. In order to maintain the new Camaro from taking sales away from the Corvette, a corporate edict forbade equipping it with engines bigger than 400 cid. Transmission options included a four-speed manual, a two-speed “Powerglide” and in late 1967 the new three-speed “Turbo Hydra-Matic 350”.

The first 1967 Camaro built at the Norwood, Ohio, plant had a VIN finish in N100001; the first built at the Van Nuys, California, plant had a VIN ending in L100001. The 1967 Camaro was the only model year to have its VIN tag mounted on the door hinge pillar. VIN tags on later models were moved so they would be visible through the windshield. 1968 saw the introduction of a fresh-air inlet system called Astro Ventilation. The bumblebee nose stripe contained in the SS package also became available as another option in March 1968.

As factory-fresh Camaros rolled off the assembly lines at Norwood and Van Nuys, the Chevy team worked equally as tough to keep Camaro in the public eye. Camaro, Actually, was selected as the Official Pace Car for the 1967 Indianapolis 500. A white Camaro RS convertible with a 396 V8 engine, not normally available for that package, and a distinctive blue bumble-bee stripe around the nose paced the field. Over 100 special reproductions of the pace car were also produced as promotional vehicles for Chevy dealerships throughout the country.

A total of 41,100 new Camaro’s were registered in the 1966 calendar-year and an extra 204,862 in 1967. Ford, on the other hand, sold nearly a half million Mustangs in 1967. Nonetheless, the battle lines were drawn. Chevy knew they had a winner and devised a daring strategy. If they couldn’t beat Mustang on the showroom floor, they’d at least beat it in the track. And while GM was not officially into racing, that did not stop Chevrolet engineers from developing the Z/28, among the most potent and effective performance packages of all time. But, that’s another story.

Concrete Paving?

Texture, Surface, Diagonal, Neon

Concrete isn’t just used for building anymore. While providing a function, it can also serve as an aesthetic enhancement for various kinds of structures, including floors, patios, driveways, decks, porches, walls, walkways, and much more. This artistic use of concrete is known as”decorative concrete”, and is a specialized project which needs an adept skill set, as well the proper inventory of materials and tools, for quality, long-lasting results.

Turning standard concrete into decorative pavement is achieved by altering the concrete either during the pouring process, or after the concrete is finished curing. Frequent methods and materials include concrete staining, concrete overlays, decorative overlays, concrete countertops, and needless to say, concrete stamping or”impressing.”

Concrete stamping has gained popularity over the past 50 years, and may be utilised in a wide array of residential and industrial applications. And there are many more reasons to choose it for your next house remodel or upgrade! Keep on reading to learn more about impressed concrete and how it can benefit your premises.

Concrete Stamping

The goals of concrete stamping is to make regular concrete resemble a decorative pattern, style, shape, design, texture, or colour. In fact, this is one of the many advantages of stamped concrete.

Not only does stamped concrete deliver long-lasting luster and durability, it is also very cost-effective because it can be constructed to resemble a wide array of higher-end materials, like brick, wood, stone, slate, bedrock, and much more. It can even be designed to resemble things in nature, such as sea shells, leaves, fossils, and more. The endless options makes it one of the most desirable and economical renovations and new building additions of today’s property owner.

Installation

It’s necessary to hire a professional home remodeling general contractor or firm for impressed concrete solutions. This is because it is a highly intricate and delicate project that requires hands-on experience and extensive knowledge of cement sidewalk installation and finishing. There are many variables involved in such work, including foundations, water drainage, floor leveling, reinforcement grids, concrete formula mixtures, and a lot more.

As for stamping concrete, the setup procedure generally involves the use of molds. Pre-made molds and stencils are pressed into concrete while the substance is still pliable (in plastic condition ). Once the patterns and textures are applied, the pavement can be finished by adding colour and then sealer. Color is added by using one or more of the following products: dry shakes, colour hardening agents, powder releases, liquid discharges, acid stains, and integral colours.

Notable Benefits

Impressed concrete offers a wide assortment of advantages in terms of cost, performance, appeal, and value. Here are some of the most notable benefits property owners are happy with:

Low Price
Endless Options
Long-Lasting
Low Care
Less Labor Intensive
Increases Property Value
Looks Great