Unclog drains

Water Drops Sink Dark Chrome Wet Shadow Dr

Unblocking a sink or tub isn’t the most glamorous of DIY jobs, but everyone should know how to do it. If you can fix the problem yourself, you can save having to call a plumber out, and often paying out plenty of cash for what can often be only a five minute job.
What are the chief causes of blockages in sinks & bathrooms?
Food particles are the leading cause of kitchen sink blockages, followed by grease.
Hair is the primary cause of toilet sink blockages, followed by soap scum/residue.
Sinks normally have a”tubular” trap beneath, a curved pipe with links to the foul water drain. This contains a degree of water to avoid odor coming up the plughole. It becomes obstructed with hair, opossum control, grime and food scraps.
The way to effectively detach your sink’s traps. Do it yourself and save cost on a plumber.
Try the easy solutions first.
If this doesn’t work, use a plunger. Block up the sink overflow (the holes across the surface of the basin) with wet kitchen towel, to prevent air escaping. Place some water in the sink or bathtub and set the plunger firmly down to the plughole, lifting it up and down in quick succession. You will most likely notice hair and other stuff come up from the plughole. This might solve the issue, though not necessarily.
If that won’t work try this traditional remedy: pour a half a cup of bicarbonate of soda, followed by a spoonful of malt vinegar. The mix will fizz: leave it to stand for one hour then run the tap. If that doesn’t clear the problem? Be careful you don’t get any on your skin as it has a corrosive effect on skin, so treat it with respect. Sometimes it works, sometimes not, but I know some folks who swear by this way of unblocking traps in sinks and bathrooms.
In the event that you still can’t re install your sink and toilet cubes you will require something ‘stronger. ‘
That I have recently employed a proprietary product specifically intended for unblocking cubes and it worked a treat. I poured it down the plughole, left it to work for an hour or so, poured hot water down following it, and it cleared the blockage.
If all else fails, put the plug in, and put a bucket under the trap. Use a wire to clean out the snare and the pipes. Replace the snare, checking for leaks. Remove the plug and turn on the taps.
If before you’ve tried the easier solutions and they’ve only worked for a brief time period then it can be better for you to go to the previous remedy recorded here, that of unscrewing the snare and having a good clear out.
If you’ve tried this last solution and it has not worked, it’s most likely something more serious, in which case you then need to consider calling out a plumber. The blockage may be farther away from the trap, in the drain . The huge majority of issues can be fixed by you, so always try it yourself as a means of saving your hard earned money.

History of Lotus

Auto, Lotus, Leather Seats, Sports Seats

An overview of The Lotus Sports Car, to concentrate on the development, important features, and technical information of each model in the range, from the Mark 6 to the Elise S1.

In this report, I provide a nostalgic look at The Lotus Sports Car, among an elite group of classic cars, which was manufactured during the period 1952 to 1996+.

In 1952, Colin Chapman founded the Lotus Engineering Company whose goal was to generate racing and sports cars.

His first car was simply called the Mark 6 and was marketed in kit form.

The Lotus Seven

Based on the Mark 6, the Series 1 Lotus Seven was introduced in 1957.

Produced mainly in kit form, it allowed enthusiasts to get a combination sports and racing car inexpensively. It was a lightweight, quick and responsive two seater machine.

This was followed, in 1961, by the Series 2 Lotus Seven with a 1.3 litre engine.

In 1968, the San Antonio Wildlife Removal was introduced with a 1.6 litre engine.

Lastly, the Series 4 Lotus Seven appeared in 1970 with either a 1.6 or 1.7 litre engine.

The Lotus Elite

A greater performance SE version in 1960 produced 85 bhp.

There followed the Super 95, Super 100 and Super 105, with much more power. With its aerodynamic shape and Coventry Climax engine, it was a standard on the racing circuits.

The Lotus Elan

It was the first Lotus sports car to combine a steel chassis with a fibre glass frame.

This two seater was, technically, ahead of its time working with a Lotus-Ford twin cam engine and a Cosworth alloy head.

A 2+2 variant was introduced in 1967 with a top speed of 120 mph and 0-60 in 7.9 secs. Some 5,200 were constructed.

The Lotus Europa

The Lotus Europa, a two door, mid engined coupe, premiered in 1966.

Like the Elan, it had a fibre glass body on a steel chassis. The modified Renault engine was positioned behind the driver’s head.

Later models were fitted using the Lotus-Ford twin cam engine. The Europa wasn’t well received.

The Lotus Elite

In 1974, Lotus launched the front-engined, four seater Elite hatchback, designated the Type 75.

Once again, such as the Elan, it had a fibre glass body on a steel chassis. It used a 16-valve, twin overhead cam engine with a five speed gearbox.

There were four levels of specification, from the fundamental 501 to the peak of the range 504.

The Lotus Eclat

Also in 1974, the Lotus Eclat was introduced.

Based on the Lotus Elite Series 75, it had a fastback body style which provided greater boot storage.

Later models used a bigger, 2174 cc Lotus engine, although it retained the same 160 bhp due to emission regulations.

The Lotus Esprit

The Lotus Esprit Series 1 was launched in 1976. As before, it was a fiber glass body on a steel chassis, and has been the replacement for the Europa.

The engine was positioned behind the passengers, as was its predecessors. Regrettably, it was considered as being underpowered.

In 1981, the Lotus Esprit Turbo Type 82 was introduced, and was based on their expertise gained in racing.

Finally, in 1986, the Turbo Esprit HC appeared, and its high compression engine generated 215 bhp. This brought the Esprit into the supercar league.

The Lotus M100 Elan appeared in 1989.

It was a two seater convertible, and utilized a Japanese Isuzu, twin overhead cam, 1.6 litre, 16-valve engine extensively modified by Lotus. Once more, the fiber glass body has been fixed to a steel chassis.

This was the only front wheel drive sports car made by Lotus.

The Lotus Elise

Launched in 1996, the Lotus Elise Type 111 was a two seater, mid-engined convertible. Its fibre glass body has been bonded to an aluminum chassis.

Lotus also offered a set of limited edition variants. These were designed primarily for racing. The Lotus Elise outperformed all revenue anticipation, and returned Lotus into the premier league.

This marked the end of the classic Lotus sports car Beyond 2000, Lotus made a variety of exciting sports cars which, sadly, falls beyond the time frame of this review.

Perhaps this stroll down memory lane might have answered, or at least shed light on, a possible question:

Which Lotus Sports Car Is Your Favorite

However, should this query still remain unanswered, I will be reviewing, in some detail, in future articles in this website, the entire assortment of Lotus sports cars which were featured in the unforgettable era spanning 1952 to 1996.

I hope you join me in my nostalgic travels “down sports car memory lane”.

If you would care to view my Initial post, including Pictures, Videos, Technical Data, and Charts not shown in this Article, then please click on the following link:

History of the Skyline

Nissan Skyline Drift Car Race Tuned Show S

In April of 1957, the Prince Motor Company introduced the very first Skyline automobile. When it was released it was advertised as a luxury automobile. The first Skyline came equipped with a 1.5 Litre, 1482cc GA-30 engine and was capable of a top speed of 87mph.

In 1958 the Skyline model had an update with the addition of quad headlights and a slightly altered 1.5 Litre GA-4 overhead valve engine. This engine has been made up until 1961. The Prince Skyline models were available in both four door sedans and five door channel wagons/estates. From the early 1960’s the Skyline was also available in what was known as the Skyline Sport package, this model featured hand constructed bodies in both coupe and convertible versions and were powered with a 1.9 Litre 1862cc GB-30 engine.

Prince then launched the S50 series of Skylines. These vehicles were considered the second generation in Skyline history. The S50 series became one of the most desired vehicles in Japan. They came powered by a G-1 engine, which was a revised version of the older GA-4.

Nissan and Prince merged together in 1966 which enabled the S50 to appear with Nissan Prince Skyline badging. The creation of the S50 series lasted until 1967 when the S50E-3 was released. The same model could be found under four different badges, the Prince Skyline, the Prince A150, the PMC A150 or the Nissan A150.

1967 saw an update to the Skyline model once more, this version was dubbed the S57 and came armed with a 1.5 Litre overhead camera 1487cc G15 engine. For its time the G15 was known as the most powerful engine in its class.

In 1968 Nissan introduced the C10 series of Skylines, these were equipped with the G15 engine or a 1.8 Litre G18.

The very first of Nissans GT-R range of skylines was introduced in 1969. The original GT-R started as a sedan but in 1970 that a coupe version was added. The GT-r models came stripped of anything deemed unnecessary so they could make them as light as possible for racing.

1971 saw the coming of the KGC10 2000GT-X Skyline. This was originally released in a two door coupe version but in 1972 a four door sedan version labeled the GT-X joined the line up.

1972 saw the arrival of the Nissan Skyline GT-R hardtop. Nissan ceased its production once the oil crisis forced many people to look into buying market vehicles to shy away from performance vehicles. At this same time Nissan pulled out of the motor racing circuits thus eliminating the need for what was then considered the high performance standout of its time. This was to be the last Skyline GT-R for 16 years before the Brand was revived in 1989.

The next generation of Skylines was the C110 versions that began production in 1972. The C110 series was the first in its own production line up to feature the round rear lights which became typical in later skyline designs. This line up remained in production until 1977.

After 1977 Nissan continued to split the skyline range down into basic four and six cylinder models. These were known as the C210 Collection of Skylines. The GT-XE was introduced using a turbo charged L20ET engine. On the early variations one unique design component of the turbo charged engines was that they were not intercooled nor did they have any type of blow off valve. Also the T designation at the end of the engine code L20ET doesn’t mean it’s a turbo, the T really stands for twin carburettors.

There were a total of 26 versions of the R30 available at the time mixing body styles and engines so people could in effect get exactly the car they wanted.In 1983 that the R30 series got a facelift, common additions that were made standard included: four wheel disk brakes, upgraded interior trim, new exterior bumpers smoked tail lights and door mounted wing mirrors.

Also in 1981 that the 2000RS model was introduced, this variant was originally marketed as a stripped down lightweight racing version. These models came equipped with a dual overhead cam FJ20E engine.

Front brakes were upgraded to larger units to cope with the increased power available.

In 1984 more changes were made with the addition of an intercooler, newly revised compression ratios and a new turbo charger exhaust housing. These were available in both manual and automatic transmission variants.

In 1986 we saw the introduction of the R31 Skyline, this was thought of as the seventh generation in the Skyline line. The R31 had many new inventions with technologies and additional capabilities. The Engine fuel and ignition system became more advanced with the addition of the NICS (Nissan Induction Control System) injection system which increased low end performance.

One of the ultimate versions of the R31 was the RB20DET-R powered HR31 GTS-R. This variant only had 800 units constructed. This amount allowed Nissan to enter the vehicle into the touring car racing circuit. The automobile itself had a much bigger turbo charger than normal and it was located on a tubular exhaust manifold that was included in addition to a much larger front mounted intercooler boosting power across the board.

In 1989 we saw the introduction of this HCR32 Skyline, this was available in either a sedan or coupe body style and the rest of the body designs were dropped. The R32 because it would be come to be known was powered by different variations of Nissans RB engine lineup.

1989 also saw the return of this GT-R, these new models came equipped with twin ceramic turbo chargers, electronically controlled all wheel drive and all wheel steering. The GT-R also had larger wheels, a larger intercooler and flared front and rear wheel arches.

In 1993 the R33 skyline was introduced. This was slightly heavier than previous versions and all models now used a six cylinder engine. With the launch of the the Skyline could no longer be thought of as a compact car as exterior measurements grew from that bracket as compared to other manufacturers, but this didn’t prevent consumers from needing one.

In 1996 the R33 got the addition of regular driver and passenger side air bags. The turbo versions were also given a nylon compressor wheel. The R33 was created until 1998 with the model being retired with its 40th anniversary R33 series 2.

Also in 1996 the GT-R was improved. Changes such as turbo compressor aerodynamics, intercooler and turbo dump pipe were all revised. A limited number of special edition NISMO 400R GT-R’s was created. These featured a road tuned engine and a getrag gearbox which has turned out to be more powerful than previous offerings.

In 1998 the R34 model was introduced. This motor, the RB20DE-NEO became the most fuel efficient straight six engines till this day.

The most recent version saw changes to the chassis, the inclusion of ball bearings to the turbo core as compared to a good position, and a new six speed getrag gearbox.

In 2007 a new variant of the GT-R premiered. Nissan now chose to separate the GT-R aside from the normal Skyline line and make it a stand alone version. This version was released to the general public in 2008. The vehicle keeps its legacy by still using the chassis code CBA-R35 or just R35.

How the Camaro Started

Car, Camaro, Auto, Automobile, Drive

While designers and engineers feverishly worked tirelessly to the development of a four-passenger sports car they code-named the F-car, the Chevy public relations, marketing and advertising team prepared the world for the introduction of a car they called the Panther.

All through the summer of 1965 virtually every component of the vehicle’s design and development, from preliminary design sketches to clay models, was photographed and carefully recorded. Chevy used the assets to make a 30 -minute movie The Camaro, which was later shown on TV and in movie theaters. They also introduced women’s clothes known as the Camaro Collection and even a Camaro road race game.

In November, Chevy sales executives and creative people previewed prototype models at the GM Tech Center. Campbell-Ewald, Chevy’s venerable ad agency, immediately began work on catalogs, direct mail and sales promotion materials, along with print, outdoor and TV/radio advertising. In April 1966, at the New York Auto Show Press Conference, Chevrolet sales executives announced that no name was chosen for the new vehicle, but did announce that pricing of 1967 model will be in the Corvair-Chevy II range.

Throughout ancient 1966 Chevy agonized over a title for its Mustang-killer. GM’s upper management was nervous about the competitive connotations of the Panther name. A similar bout of cold feet would later cause the Pontiac version, code called the Banshee, to be renamed Firebird. Over its brief lifetime, the F-car had been called by many names including Wildcat, Chaparral, Commander and Nova. It’s also rumored that Chevy considered using the letters”GM” in the title, and came up with G-Mini, which evolved to GeMini and finally Gemini. However, GM’s upper management vetoed the idea, fearing the car might be a failure.

Automotive legend has it that someone at Chevrolet finally suggested the name Camaro and upper direction quickly agreed. Even though the name has no actual significance, GM researchers reportedly found the word in a French dictionary as a slang term for”friend” or”companion.” It is rumored that Ford Motor Company researchers also discovered other definitions, including”a shrimp-like creature” and an arcane term for”loose bowels.”

Since a number or pre-launch materials had already been published utilizing the Panther name, Chevy’s most pressing challenge was to now rename their new Mustang killer, the Camaro.

On June 21, 1966, around 200 automotive journalists received a telegram from General Motors saying,”Please be available at noon of June 28 for significant press conference. Hope you can be available to help scratch a cat. The next day, journalists received another mysterious telegram stating,”Society for the Eradication of Panthers from the Automotive World will hold first and last meeting on June 28.” Once more, the telegram was signed, John L. Cutter – Chevrolet Public Relations – SEPAW Secretary.

It was the first time in history that 14 cities were hooked up in real time for a press conference via telephone lines. Elliot M.”Pete” Estes, who replaced”Bunkie” Knudsen as Chevrolet General Manager in July 1965, began the news conference by announcing all participants were now charter members of the Society for the Elimination of Panthers in the Automotive World (SEPAW.) Estes confidently announced that Camaro was chosen as the name for Chevy’s new four-passenger sports car to honor the tradition of starting Chevy model names with the letter C such as the Corvette, Corvair, Chevelle, and Chevy II. Most automotive insiders agreed it was a ridiculous statement, given the fact that the Chevy Impala was subsequently the best-selling car in the world. Estes then went on to explain that the Camaro name was,”derived from a French word meaning comrade or pal and indicates the comradeship of great friends as a private car should be to its owner.” Automotive legend also has it that, after the press conference, when a member of the automotive press asked,”what is a Camaro?” A Chevrolet product manager immediately answered by saying,”a small, vicious animal that eats Mustangs.”

Soon after the press conference, editors from major magazines were invited to the GM Proving Grounds for a hands-on driving experience, hot laps with professional drivers and briefing on all aspects of the Camaro. Dealers saw the Camaro for the first time in August, at the Chevrolet Sales Convention in Detroit. On September 25, the first Camaro advertisements appeared in national newspapers. On September 28, 1966, Chevrolet launched an unprecedented ad blitz consisting of newspapers, magazines, radio, television, outdoor and television advertising.

The very first Chevy Camaro television commercial can nevertheless be seen on YouTube. It features a white Camaro RS/SS using the distinctive bumble-bee nose band emerging from a volcano. The voice over proudly introduces”The fiery new Camaro from Chevrolet… something you’ve never seen before.”

Just prior to the official June 29th launch date, a press package with photographs, specifications, and line stories were published to newspapers and magazines across the country. Over 100 members of the press were invited to participate in a gymkhana driving contest at the GM Proving Grounds. The same type of event was held one week later in Los Angeles. A group of editors were also selected to induce top-optioned Camaro RS/SS versions from Detroit to their home cities so they could publish,”I drove it personally,” feature articles in their regional newspapers.

Mustang’s two and a half year head start in the market did little blunt America’s eagerness to see the new Camaro. Chevy dealerships throughout the country were filled to overflowing with curious and willing buyers. Dealerships were issued special window trimming, urged to black-out their windows and extend their showroom hours. Long lines formed to even glimpse the new automobile. Those waiting in line were also more than willing to debate the merits of Mustang and the still unseen Camaro. It is rumored that local police were frequently called help control the crowds.

Chevy made every attempt to supply their largest dealers with a base sport coupe, Camaro RS and a Camaro SS convertible. The tactic was an extension of the creative approach used in Chevy’s national advertisements which showed all three Camaro models under a tag line,”How much Camaro you want depends on how much driver that you want to be.”

The sticker price of $2,466 to get a Camaro base coupe and $2,704 to get a base convertible was fully competitive with Ford’s pricing of the 1967 Mustang models which was $2,461 for the standard coupe, $2,692 for a standard fastback and $2,898 for a typical convertible.

Taking a page from Mustang’s success in earning additional profit from accessories and options, the Camaro could be arranged with almost 80 mill options and 40 seller accessories. Buyers could also option up to a greater 250-inch variant of the conventional straight six engine, a choice of 327-cubic-inch small-block V8s fed by a two-barrel or a four-barrel carburetor and two versions of this 396-cubic-inch big-block V8. In order to maintain the new Camaro from taking sales away from the Corvette, a corporate edict forbade equipping it with engines bigger than 400 cid. Transmission options included a four-speed manual, a two-speed “Powerglide” and in late 1967 the new three-speed “Turbo Hydra-Matic 350”.

The first 1967 Camaro built at the Norwood, Ohio, plant had a VIN finish in N100001; the first built at the Van Nuys, California, plant had a VIN ending in L100001. The 1967 Camaro was the only model year to have its VIN tag mounted on the door hinge pillar. VIN tags on later models were moved so they would be visible through the windshield. 1968 saw the introduction of a fresh-air inlet system called Astro Ventilation. The bumblebee nose stripe contained in the SS package also became available as another option in March 1968.

As factory-fresh Camaros rolled off the assembly lines at Norwood and Van Nuys, the Chevy team worked equally as tough to keep Camaro in the public eye. Camaro, Actually, was selected as the Official Pace Car for the 1967 Indianapolis 500. A white Camaro RS convertible with a 396 V8 engine, not normally available for that package, and a distinctive blue bumble-bee stripe around the nose paced the field. Over 100 special reproductions of the pace car were also produced as promotional vehicles for Chevy dealerships throughout the country.

A total of 41,100 new Camaro’s were registered in the 1966 calendar-year and an extra 204,862 in 1967. Ford, on the other hand, sold nearly a half million Mustangs in 1967. Nonetheless, the battle lines were drawn. Chevy knew they had a winner and devised a daring strategy. If they couldn’t beat Mustang on the showroom floor, they’d at least beat it in the track. And while GM was not officially into racing, that did not stop Chevrolet engineers from developing the Z/28, among the most potent and effective performance packages of all time. But, that’s another story.

Concrete Paving?

Texture, Surface, Diagonal, Neon

Concrete isn’t just used for building anymore. While providing a function, it can also serve as an aesthetic enhancement for various kinds of structures, including floors, patios, driveways, decks, porches, walls, walkways, and much more. This artistic use of concrete is known as”decorative concrete”, and is a specialized project which needs an adept skill set, as well the proper inventory of materials and tools, for quality, long-lasting results.

Turning standard concrete into decorative pavement is achieved by altering the concrete either during the pouring process, or after the concrete is finished curing. Frequent methods and materials include concrete staining, concrete overlays, decorative overlays, concrete countertops, and needless to say, concrete stamping or”impressing.”

Concrete stamping has gained popularity over the past 50 years, and may be utilised in a wide array of residential and industrial applications. And there are many more reasons to choose it for your next house remodel or upgrade! Keep on reading to learn more about impressed concrete and how it can benefit your premises.

Concrete Stamping

The goals of concrete stamping is to make regular concrete resemble a decorative pattern, style, shape, design, texture, or colour. In fact, this is one of the many advantages of stamped concrete.

Not only does stamped concrete deliver long-lasting luster and durability, it is also very cost-effective because it can be constructed to resemble a wide array of higher-end materials, like brick, wood, stone, slate, bedrock, and much more. It can even be designed to resemble things in nature, such as sea shells, leaves, fossils, and more. The endless options makes it one of the most desirable and economical renovations and new building additions of today’s property owner.


It’s necessary to hire a professional home remodeling general contractor or firm for impressed concrete solutions. This is because it is a highly intricate and delicate project that requires hands-on experience and extensive knowledge of cement sidewalk installation and finishing. There are many variables involved in such work, including foundations, water drainage, floor leveling, reinforcement grids, concrete formula mixtures, and a lot more.

As for stamping concrete, the setup procedure generally involves the use of molds. Pre-made molds and stencils are pressed into concrete while the substance is still pliable (in plastic condition ). Once the patterns and textures are applied, the pavement can be finished by adding colour and then sealer. Color is added by using one or more of the following products: dry shakes, colour hardening agents, powder releases, liquid discharges, acid stains, and integral colours.

Notable Benefits

Impressed concrete offers a wide assortment of advantages in terms of cost, performance, appeal, and value. Here are some of the most notable benefits property owners are happy with:

Low Price
Endless Options
Low Care
Less Labor Intensive
Increases Property Value
Looks Great

The Great Outdoors

Six Camping Tents in Forest

The great outdoors, a magnificent and extraordinary experience which may be shared with friends and family members. As a whole, we’re so caught up with our own lives which we do not make the time required to enjoy the tiniest of things in life, relax and unwind. In today’s society, we’re all about work-work-work… Our programs are so full and filled with meetings and work-related issues which we forget about some of the truly wonderful things life has to offer, like character.

Nature is such a lovely and complicated marvel yet the vast majority of us spend little time researching it — even in our own backyards. In the event that you were to ask any handful of people in Orange County, California if they’ve been to some of the surrounding national parks like Yosemite, or Yellowstone you’d be surprised (or not) from the number of those who have been to places like this. In the last few years, I’ve grown very fond of being out in the wilderness. It’s such a refreshing and revitalizing hobby and on top of that, it’s basically free.

Camping is such a terrific hobby to pick-up and although acquiring equipment might be an initial investment, based on the sort of camping you want, you may hardly need to spend any money in any way. Some campers love backpacking, and although I can happily say I have done this once – it was also an entirely frightening experience for me. Other folks would rather go”glamping” that is more of a”glamourous” encounter; blow-up mattresses, A/C, showers, fancy mobile sofas and some take it a step farther with RV camping.

There are a lot of sights to visit and places to see that one could never explore it all in a lifetime. Still, creating a bucket-list of all of the places you wish to travel to is such a thrill and brings so much enthusiasm when you’re able to actually check an item off the list. Regardless of what age you’re there’s always enough of mother nature to discuss and make new memories.

Do you ever wonder what the Milky Way looks like when it’s fully visible? The city lifestyle doesn’t give us much of an opportunity to actually lay back and respect the world. Take the night skies for example — the light pollution is so terrible from most metropolitan areas that the only things visible in the skies are helicopters, jets and clouds/smog. Imagine leaning back into your comfortable camping chair, the only light visible comes from a dimly lit campfire and a series of light immediately shoots across your field of view. You look up and the sky becomes its own magnificent show, full of countless stars, and you find another series of light shoot across the sky.

In southern California there are a lot of places you can see with breath-taking views. In what other areas could you drive for just 1-2 hours and be not just on the shore, but also in the hills, in a lake or even camping in the wilderness? Mother nature won’t always be around, and it is sad to think that we take the beauty of the planet for granted. The next time you’re feeling adventurous, why not get out and explore, you will be truly amazed by just how much beauty there is on this world.

How to Decide Which Plants Are Best For Your Koi Pond

Now that your koi pond is finally finished, after all of your hard work , now it is time to consider what type of plants to choose to receive the water garden looking just how you would like.

You want it to look amazing, of course, but when selecting your plants, keep in mind that these plants may also have the added value of bringing biological life into your koi pond. This helps keep your pond in a natural way.

The climate in your particular area is something to consider. Certain plants will not survive in certain conditions, so it is important to do some research before going out and spending your hard-earned cash. If you have a local dealer, then have a talk with them for advice on which crops are best suited to a koi pond.

Lotus Plants
Lotus plants are always a popular option for koi ponds, because of their simple beauty. A word of caution, though. Lotus plants such as temperatures above 65 deg. A greenhouse would be useful, as lotus plants need dirt and a great deal of sunlight. You will need to plant them in about 2-3 feet of water during warmer weather, and inside when it goes colder.

Water Hyacinths
If you have a busy lifestyle and cannot put enough time into keeping your koi pond, then water hyacinths might be a fantastic choice. They are a low-maintenance plant and quite pretty in appearance. They don’t need soil or planting. You just scatter them on the water, and the only work required is minimal. You’ll need to anchor them down so that they don’t float throughout the pond randomly. Water hyacinths are also good for combating algae and blanket weed.

One word of warning about water hyacinths. If allowed to spread, they can be extremely difficult to remove.

Underwater plants
Even though they aren’t seen, they have a practical use. They’ll fight against algae, put oxygen in the water and may be a source of food for your fish. Any fantastic local pet store or koi dealer will have bundles of these type of plants. Most of these plants require Wildlife Control maintenance throughout the cold season, so once you set them in place, you don’t have to worry about them. So, though they are unseen, they are doing a excellent job under the surface, which benefits not only you, but the inhabitants of your koi pond.


Picking The Right Food For Your Corals

One of the tricky parts of raising live corals in a saltwater aquarium is providing the ideal combinations of Bee Removal Orlando foods to maintain the polyps healthy and alive. For many coral aquarists, feeding time meant thawing out messy frozen foods and maintaining a program of feedings that vary from brine shrimp and phyto to krill, also additions of amino and other elements to keep the corals happy. However, with the advent of Fauna Marin’s pre-made coral foods in North America, feeding time in the aquarium just got a whole lot easier.

Why Feed Specialty Foods into Corals?

Owners of coral colonies have two main reasons to use specialty foods in their aquariums: to keep the coral alive and healthy, and also to bring out the stunning colors that are so much a part of the best coral colonies. If all goes well, the coral will even grow, further enhancing the overall aquarium setup.

Actual feeding of coral colonies is a two stage affair. First, you have to attract the interest of the colony enough to make them open their polyps. Then you must serve up a food that keeps their interest long enough to get them to eat. Pre-made coral foods, such as those provided by the German-based firm, Fauna Marin, hand the coral reef aquarist whatever he or she wants to maintain most corals, such as gorgonian and filter feeding coral, happy over the long term.

Sometimes, you have to match the size of your coral food to the size of the polyp. With Fauna Marin Ultra LPS Series, feeding some stony corals with polyps up to 1/4 inch in diameter, such as acans, can be as simple as scatter the medium-sized pellet across the coral. In this manner, the individual polyps do not have to be goal fed, since the colony is connected together by means of pathways and connective tissue, and all polyps in a coral colony benefit in the feed.

In fact, Fauna Marin’s coral foods are highly concentrated, so some colonies can get together with feedings a couple of times weekly. With the greater concentration, the energy level produced by Fauna Marin coral food is much greater than the same energy level produced by normal fish meals.

Fauna Marin Ultra LPS Grow and Color is a powdered food product, which can be reconstituted by mixing some water from the aquarium to the food powder, until it reaches a sticky consistency. There are warnings with Fauna Marin products not to inhale the powder, don’t feed it to other pets or animals meant for human consumption, don’t swallow their goods, and prevent contact of Fauna Marin foods with the skin or eyes.

What to Look for in a Good Coral Food

First of all, you would like to employ a food into your coral reef that your polyps respond to, and decent coral foods such as those created by Fauna Marin, excite the polyps to feed almost immediately. The size of the pellet also matters.

Another aspect of coral foods which is worth considering is the softness. Coral polyps are soft-bodied creatures, and you want to buy food for them that is soft and with no sharp edges that can harm the corals. Fauna Marin’s food becomes tacky and tender when it reaches the water, so even partly open polyps benefit from the food.

Also important is to present your corals a combination of minerals and foods as close to their native environment as possible, and that is where Fauna Marin excels. This business mixes together dosages of mineral supplements, organic biopolymers, and trace elements to provide the corals what they enjoy best. Also included in Fauna Marin coral food are all the carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fats, antioxidants, Omega-3 oils, and marine proteins required by a coral reef to keep health and good color. Purchasers of Fauna Marin coral food products have reported polyps which extend far beyond their normal distance after a feeding session.

Is Betta Fish Right For You

So, you’re interested in buying a Betta fish or a different tropical fish? What makes you think about the Betta?

Are you buying the Betta simply because you see them in small tiny round bowls and you think that this seems like an easy fish to take home for a pet?

If that’s the only reason, I would like you to stop right now and reevaluate your choice of pets. While most pet shops have the Betta in a tiny bowl, in real life, most Bettas likely would love a larger housing. After all, do you prefer to get stuck in a little bowl where you can practically touch the walls from where you are in the bowl? Do you want to be held captive in such a small place even when you did have the water to swim around in?

Have a look at the natural environment of any fish; take a good look. You’ve probably never seen a fish being born or raised or residing its whole life in a little Betta bowl, except in the pet stores.

The reason they’re in those bowls is because they can’t allow the Betta in with certain other fish, especially not their own type of fish, the male Betta. They are known as the”Siamese Fighting Fish” and that will give you a clue concerning the personality of such a fish.

Thus, let’s face it. The actual reason that all those fish are in tiny bowls is because that is the cheapest way that the fish stores can keep the fish. There are no filters, and no filtration cartridges to purchase when you use a tiny bowl for a fish tank. The store wants you to feel that this fish-caring on the Betta is simple, easy and not expensive.

If the pet stores were forced to give appropriate housing to Betta fish, they would have to give each Betta a twenty or ten gallon fish tank. That would be too costly, so all the stores house the Betta fish in tiny, glass bowls which are economical for the stores.

. Give your Betta a bigger living space. You may put some plants in there and some tiny decorations and you are all set for your new Betta’s environment.

While you are at the library, pick up a couple of books on tropical fish and get a book about Bettas but read with caution. The book will tell you how you can care for the Betta. It’ll tell you where to find Bettas and Betta supplies.

Another suggestion:

Prior to buying your Betta, or before you buy any fish in any way, do the smart thing and purchase all you need for the fish before you even look at fish. The concept is to get the setup all fit in the spot where you will keep it in your home or office. Prepare the tank, the water, the filter, and some other decorative items you want inside the tank, and then let the filter run for a day or two before you go to buy the fish.

Consider putting in a few live plants aside from the plastic ones you might have chosen. Mixing both plastic and live plants in an aquarium may give it a most interesting look.

Consider purchasing a bigger filter than necessary, just because. Most times, people look for small, inexpensive set ups for fish.

Personally, for myself, I had always opted for just slightly larger. You just never know. Sure you’re starting out with one fish from now or a year from now, you just might have a whole community of fish living in that same tank. If you think larger at the beginning, that saves you time, trouble and money later on in your hobby advancement.


Do your research if you’re contemplating raising fish. Determine which fish are friendly and which are very aggressive. There’s been more than one hobbyist who has brought home a predator fish only to find his or her other fish dead after a day or so.

And then there are those fish who just like to nibble on each other. Some of the Angel Fish varieties occasionally will nibble the fins of other Angel Fish. And they’ll nibble and nibble till they can not nibble anymore. So you might do plenty of research on Angel Fish prior to buying them.

If you would like to breed fish and you’re a real beginning, the Guppy might be the ideal fish for you to begin with. But remember, that bigger Guppy will most likely try to consume all the infants so have a separate tank prepared for the baby fish OR get one of these divider particles for your tank and you may divide just about any tank into two separate tanks. When you look in the fish pet shops or aquariums, you will notice that they also make small side tanks that hang off the tops of the larger aquariums. They will catch the fish, but them in that smaller tank and then carry the tank into the register for you to buy your fish. So, there are many options when you are thinking of purchasing or raising fish.


Purchase the recommended foods. And in case you’re able to get a no frills brand that will work too.

You might not need to do this but I’ll share a secret with you. I did run out of fish food one day, long ago, in winter and I did not live near a pet store. I went to the cupboard and took out the box of Cheerios and proceeded to smash the Cheerios into a nice grain. Yes, I did feed to the fish and they ate like that for ten or more days, until finally I was able to go and buy fish food. Yes they survived!

And the pet stores will sell live food for the reptiles and for some fish. I am just sharing thoughts here.

Where Are Turtles Lungs

Most vertebrates have a flexible rib cage that allows the lungs to expand and contract during breathing. Not so the turtles, who long ago traded away flexible ribs in favor of a fixed, protective shell. Various species of turtles have evolved distinct means of drawing air in their lungs. Turtles have also developed indirect methods for obtaining oxygen during times when they are sealed from contact with the air, as when hibernating or staying underwater.

In turtles, the lungs lie just beneath the carapace and above the other internal organs. The upper surface of the lungs attaches to the carapace itself, while the lower part is connected to the viscera (heart, liver, stomach, and intestinal tract) by a skin of connective tissue called diaphragmaticus. The viscera themselves can also be included within a membrane that attaches to the diaphragmaticus. Groups of muscles rhythmically change the amount of the abdominal cavity. 1 set of muscles moves the viscera upward, pushing air out of the lungs.

When turtles walk about, the motions of their forelimbs foster the suction and compression activities that encircle the lungs. A turtle can alter its lung volume simply by drawing its limbs , then extending them outward again: Turtles floating along with the water often can be seen moving their legs in and out, which helps them breathe. A turtle pulled back within its shell has no room in its lungs for air. At these and sometimes, turtles utilize different approaches to obtain oxygen.

Raising and lowering the hyoid apparatus causes a turtle’s neck to grow and drop, pulling in air. (Along with boosting ventilation, this air motion enables a turtle to better use its sense of smell.) From the highly aquatic soft-shell turtles, the throat is lined with fingerlike projections of skin called villi, which are richly supplied with blood. The villi work like gills, expelling carbon dioxide and taking in oxygen from the water. To process oxygen rich water, a soft shell uses its hyoid apparatus to fill and empty its own throat in a process known as buccopharyngeal breathing. When submerged, a soft shell typically pushes water out and in about sixteen times per minute. Turtles that hibernate underwater also exchange gases through the throat lining, cycling the water inside the throat cavity several times each minute. Many turtles practice this method of breathing, and a few turtles even take in oxygen through the cloaca.

Many of the specifics of turtles breathing remain unidentified. What is clear however is that different kinds of turtles have evolved different methods of fulfilling their oxygen needs. Through evolution, they have gotten very good at obtaining this essential gas. As Ronald Orenstein notes in Turtles, Tortoises, and Terrapins: Survivors in Armor, turtles seem able to breathe”with the least amount of effort regardless of what their circumstances.”